"The Persian army entered the plain of Xanthos under the command of Harpagos and did battle with the Xanthians. The , Xanthians fought with small numbers against the superior Persian forces with a legendary bravery. They resisted the endless Persian forces with great courage but were finally beaten and forced to retreat within the walls of their city. They gathered their womenfolk, children, slaves and treasures into the fortress. This was then set on fire from below and around the walls, until all was destroyed by the conflagration. The warriors of Xanthos made their final attack on the Persians, their voices raised in their battle cries, until every last man from Xanthos was killed"

Only the Xanthians who happened to be in other places at the time were spared and it was they who returned at a later date to re-establish the city. After reading this passage from Heredotus of Halicarnassos, we learn that Xanthos existed during the 6th century B.C. Again, the sources tell us that the Lycians took part in the Trojan wars commanded by Sarpedon of Xanthi, hence we also know that it existed in 1200 B.C. However this hapless though magnificent city was completely bummed down between 475 and 450 B.C. During excavations, this was confirmed by the thick layer of ash covering the site.