Adiyaman is Turkey’s oil boom town, with all the good and bad of that "honor." When oil was discovered around nearby Kahta, the money flowed into Adiyaman, the provincial capital.

According to archaeological research the history of the area goes back to the Paleolithic Age. During the Neolithic Age (8000-7000 B.C.) Gritille, Hayaz, Ancoz and Samsat were the main culture centers.

Adiyaman used to be known as "Hisn-i Mansur" until the republican era. It hosted many civilizations throughout its history including the Hittites, Mittanis, Urartus, Assyrians, Meds, Persians, Alexander the Great and the Kommagene. Adiyaman lived the periods of the Seljuk Turks, Crusades and Mamelukes in the 11th, and those of the Anatolian Seljuks, Ilkhanite and Mamelukes in the 12th century. It was annexed by the Ottoman Empire in 1516 during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim. The area has ample pieces, structures and specimens coming from the Hellenistic era, Romans and the Byzantine together with those belonging to the Islamic - Turkish heritage. These assets obtained during the salvation work started in 1978 along with the Lower Euphrates Project are now placed in Adiyaman Museum. The museum exhibits pieces obtained from excavations carried out at various tumulus together with coins from the Roman and Seljuk times.

Historical sites within the central town include the Fortress, Carsi Mosque, Old Palace Mosque, Kap Mosque and the Grand (Ulu) Mosque from the 14th century.

The fortress of Adiyaman is placed on a man made hill at the centre of the town, built by the Caliph Omayyad Commander Munsur Ibn-i Cavene to defend the city against the Byzantine attacks. Now remaining in a destroyed standing, the fortress has three main gates. Today this fortress is a park.

The ancient city of Perre, today called Pirin, is 5 km from Adiyaman. The city ruins and 208 caves in the rocks, where there are some human relieves, are of historical importance.

At the Adiyaman Museum you will find on display archaeological and ethnographical finds from various historical periods. The museum is open everyday except on Mondays.

The Nemrud Mountain tumulus in the National Park, Karakus Hill, Cendere Bridge, Samsat, Arsameia, Dikilitas, Kahta, GOksu Bridge, and rock graves are other sites in the province worth seeing.

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